What is the animal model used in influenza research?
Abstract. There has been much critical influenza research conducted in a little-known laboratory animal—the ferret. The authors review some of these findings, discuss the reasons the ferret often becomes a model for influenza infection, and compare the ferret with other animal models.
What is the structure of influenza virus?
The structure of the influenza virus (see Figure 1) is somewhat variable, but the virion particles are usually spherical or ovoid in shape and 80 to 120 nanometers in diameter. Sometimes filamentous forms of the virus occur as well, and are more common among some influenza strains than others.
What is H1N1 pdm09 like virus?
In conclusion, A/(H1N1)pdm09 is a new virus which is similar to seasonal influenza viruses in terms of disease incidence and transmissibility, but different in terms of its sudden appearance, rapid spread and severity of clinical manifestations in young people.
What type of virus is influenza RNA DNA?
All influenza viruses consist of single-stranded RNA as opposed to dual-stranded DNA. The RNA genes of influenza viruses are made up of chains of nucleotides that are bonded together and coded by the letters A, C, G and U, which stand for adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, respectively.
Why are ferrets used in research?
Ferrets are often used as models to study respiratory diseases as they often contract the same respiratory viruses as humans and their lungs and airways bare a striking physiological similarity to human’s. The ferret is closer biologically and physiologically to humans than the mouse or the rat.
What are the unique characteristics of the influenza virus?
The physical characteristics of influenza viruses are that they are single-stranded, RNA viruses enclosed in a helical nucleocapsid. On the outside, these viruses are enveloped. Two important proteins are found on surface of this envelope: hemagglutinin and neurominidase.
What does pdm09 stand for?
The name A(H1N1)pdm09 later came into widespread use, sometimes qualified as A/California/7/2009(H1N1)pdm, etc. The pdm09 in the above nomenclature refers to Pandemic Disease Mexico 2009.
What is ferret model?
The ferret model is a valuable resource for evaluating influenza virus pathogenicity; thus, understanding the most effective techniques for sample collection and usage, as well as the full spectrum of attainable data after experimental inoculation in this species, is paramount.
What are ferrets used for?
Ferrets are a domesticated version of the European polecat. They’re part of the mustelidae family, which includes otters, stoats, weasels and badgers. They have been used for hunting and pest control for a long time and are still kept for this purpose today, though they’re becoming increasingly popular as pets.
Is influenza natural?
The virus that causes our annual epidemics of influenza comes to us through the air. We think of the flu as a human disease, but its agent is by nature a virus of birds. Circumstances may force this avian virus to infect other animals, and it gets better and better at doing this. But it is most at home in wild ducks.
How was H1N1 virus formed?
Around 1918, the ancestral virus, of avian origin, crossed the species boundaries and infected humans as human H1N1. The same phenomenon took place soon after in America, where the human virus infected pigs; it led to the emergence of the H1N1 swine strain, which later became known as swine flu.
What is H1N1 (influenza)?
Among viral respiratory illnesses, influenza A (H1N1) – a single stranded RNA virus – continues to be a major public health threat worldwide 1. Annually, influenza virus infects about three to five million individuals globally, leading to approximately 650,000 deaths 2, 3.
Can H1N1 reporter virus identify antigen-bearing cells over time?
In this report, we used a novel Influenza A/California/04/09 (H1N1) reporter virus that stably expresses the Venus fluorescent protein to identify antigen-bearing cells over time in a mouse model of infection using flow cytometry.
How does matrix protein 1 (M1) mediate virus assembly?
The most abundant protein in influenza virions is matrix protein 1 (M1), which mediates virus assembly by forming an endoskeleton beneath the virus membrane 1. The structure of full-length M1, and how it oligomerizes to mediate the assembly of virions, is unknown.
What are the arginine residues in influenza A virus matrix protein M1?
Das, S. C. et al. The highly conserved arginine residues at positions 76 through 78 of influenza A virus matrix protein M1 play an important role in viral replication by affecting the intracellular localization of M1. J.