Table of Contents

## What is Tau P Transform?

The tau-p transform is an indigenous processing tool and a legitimate attempt to preserve the wavefield uniqueness of the seismic data as it provides an increased separation between different seismic waves i.e., multiples, ground- roll, P and S waves amongst others.

## What is P transform?

A PTransform is an operation that takes an InputT (some subtype of PInput ) and produces an OutputT (some subtype of POutput ). Common PTransforms include root PTransforms like TextIO.

**What is slant stack?**

Slant stack is a transformation of the offset axis. It is like steering a beam of seismic waves.

**What is a minimum phase wave?**

The minimum phase wavelet has a short time duration and a concentration of energy at the start of the wavelet. It is zero before time zero (causal). An ideal seismic source would be a spike (maximum amplitude at every frequency), but the best practical one would be minimum phase.

### What is PCollection and PTransform in Dataflow?

PCollection: represents a collection of bounded or unbounded data. PTransform: transforms input PCollections into output PCollections. PipelineRunner: represents where and how the pipeline should execute.

### Who uses Apache Beam?

Apache Beam is a unified programming model for batch and streaming data processing jobs. It comes with support for many runners such as Spark, Flink, Google Dataflow and many more (see here for all runners).

**What is FK filtering?**

F-k filtering is when seismic data, that is traditionally in the time and displacement domain, is converted into the frequency and wave number (F-k) domain as seen in figure 1 below.

**What is P collection?**

A PCollection is an immutable collection of values of type T . A PCollection can contain either a bounded or unbounded number of elements.

#### How do you read PCollection?

To read a PCollection from one or more text files, use TextIO. read() to instantiate a transform and use TextIO. Read. from(String) to specify the path of the file(s) to be read.

#### When should I use Dataproc?

Dataproc is a managed Spark and Hadoop service that lets you take advantage of open source data tools for batch processing, querying, streaming, and machine learning. Dataproc automation helps you create clusters quickly, manage them easily, and save money by turning clusters off when you don’t need them.

**Who invented Apache Beam?**

Google

Apache Beam is an open source unified programming model to define and execute data processing pipelines, including ETL, batch and stream (continuous) processing….Apache Beam.

Original author(s) | |
---|---|

Initial release | June 15, 2016 |

Stable release | 2.30.0 (June 9, 2021) [±] |

Repository | Beam Repository |

Written in | Java, Python, Go |

**What is the purpose of deconvolution in seismic data processing?**

Deconvolution, or inverse filtering, can improve seismic data that were adversely affected by filtering, or convolution that occurs naturally as seismic energy is filtered by the Earth. Deconvolution can also be performed on other types of data, such as gravity, magnetic or well log data.

## What is Tau-p transform?

The tau-p transform is an indigenous processing tool and a legitimate attempt to preserve the wavefield uniqueness of the seismic data as it provides an increased separation between different seismic waves i.e., multiples, ground- roll, P and S waves amongst others.

## How do you find the Tau-p transform of a hyperbolic reflection?

(b) Its tau-p transform is F (τ, p) where p = dt / dx =1/ Va and τ=intercept time at x =0. The reciprocal of the apparent velocity, p, is called slowness. Hyperbolic reflections transform into ellipses, straight events into points (the direct wave into P1, the head wave into P2 ).

**What is the Tau-p transform of end-on seismic records?**

(a) An end-on seismic record is f ( x, t) where x =source-geophone distance (offset) and t =arrival time. (b) Its tau-p transform is F (τ, p) where p = dt / dx =1/ Va and τ=intercept time at x =0.

**How to enhance seismic signals using tau-P mute filter?**

Consequently after applying deconvolution in tau-p domain, a suitable tau-p mute filter is designed and applied to data to enhance the seismic signals by removing those critical noises. Application of Tau-P transform for signal enhancement