Who developed the Mini Mental State Examination?

Who developed the Mini Mental State Examination?

M. F. Folstein et al
The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was first published in 1975 by M. F. Folstein et al. as an appendix to the Mini-mental state: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician study.

How do I reference the mini mental state exam?

References and Readings

  1. Folstein, M., & McHugh, P. ( 1975). Mini mental state a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician.
  2. Molloy, D., Alemayehu, E., & Roberts, R. ( 1991).
  3. Uhlmann, R., Larson, E., & Buchner, D. ( 1987).

What was the principle reason for MMSE?

Purpose. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was originally developed as a brief screening. tool to provide a quantitative evaluation of cognitive impairment and to record cognitive changes over time (Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975).

When was MMSE invented?

The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) first developed by Folstein in 1975, has become the most recognized tool for assessing an individual’s cognitive state. It assesses six areas of cognitive ability for a maximal score of 30 points.

When was mini mental state created?

Abstract. Folstein and colleagues published the Mini Mental State examination (MMSE) for brief quantitative assessment of cognitive function 30 years ago (Folstein et al. 1975).

Is MMSE public domain?

The authors noted in their article that “a number of cognitive assessment instruments, including the MMSE, are copyrighted and now have restrictions or fees associated with their use,” and that in response, “the Sweet 16 is open access, whereas the MMSE and the MMSE-2 are restricted by copyright.”

Is the MMSE reliable?

The MMSE is a quick and easy measure that assesses seven areas of cognitive functioning, and it was shown to have both good test-retest reliability (0.80–0.95) [2–5] and acceptable sensitivity and specificity to detect mild to moderate stages of dementia [2–7].

What is the Folstein score?

The Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a 30-point questionnaire that is used extensively in clinical and research settings to measure cognitive impairment. It is commonly used in medicine and allied health to screen for dementia.

How accurate is MMSE?

In memory clinic settings the MMSE had a pooled sensitivity (Se) of 79.8%, a specificity (Sp) of 81.3%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 86.3% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 73.0%.

Is MMSE copyrighted?

The MMSE, originally published in 1975, has recently been copyrighted by a company that does not allow printing of the MMSE in its entirety. Therefore, even if you have the test committed to memory, the efficient recording and retrieval of the results in the facility chart likely would be compromised.

Who can perform MMSE?

Many memory clinics and neurologists administer both tests as well as a host of others. More pressed for time, an internist or a primary care physician would likely conduct only one—probably the MMSE—which would be periodically repeated to test for potential decline.

What are the limitations of a mini mental state examination?

MMSE, currently the most widely used SCT, presents several significant limitations. It cannot be used with illiterate subjects, scores are heavily influenced by educational level, its utility for CI screening is reduced, and it is not freely available.

Can you use MMSE free?

Its widespread use can largely be thanked to several factors, most importantly is that for 30 years it was free for anyone to use and reproduce, as the creators of the MMSE never enforced their copyright. The MMSE is also not a novel cognitive test, as it is clearly a derivation of other prior cognitive tests.

When was MMSE copyrighted?

When the MMSE was first published in 1975 in the Journal of Psychiatric Research, its copyright ownership remained with the authors until Elsevier took over copyright of both Pergamon Press and the Journal of Psychiatric Research.

What is the mini mental state examination?

The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is an 11-question measure that tests five areas of cognitive function: orientation, registration, attention and calculation, recall, and language.

When was the Folstein test introduced?

It was originally introduced by Folstein et al. in 1975, in order to differentiate organic from functional psychiatric patients but is very similar to, or even directly incorporates, tests which were in use previous to its publication. This test is not a mental status examination.

Can a mini-mental state examination (MMSE) detect dementia early?

“Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for the early detection of dementia in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021 (7): CD010783. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010783.pub3.

What is MiniMini-mental status examination?

Mini-mental status examination: a screening instrument for cognitive and mood disorders of elderly.