What is seismic azimuth?

What is seismic azimuth?

Azimuth is the angle at the source location between the sail line and the direction to a given receiver. The target essentially is illuminated from one direction in NAZ surveys. In a multi-azimuth (MAZ) survey the seismic vessel acquires 3D seismic data over the survey area in multiple directions, up to six.

What is 2D seismic data?

A two dimensional (2D) seismic survey is an exploration method used to create a map of the structures beneath Earth’s surface (see image below). The method sends energy waves into the Earth.

How is 4D seismic data acquired?

4D seismic is accomplished by repeating 3D seismic observation, so time-lapse seismic requires seismic data collected in different times to have consistency or repeatability.

What is 1D vs 2D vs 3D?

The difference between 1D, 2D and 3D geophysical measurements is related to how you measure and process the data you collect. For 1D measurements data are only collected beneath a single point at the surface, for 2D a profile is measured and, for 3D, data from across a volume of ground is collected.

What is seismic Crossline?

1. n. [Geophysics] A seismic line within a 3D survey perpendicular to the direction in which the data were acquired. See: acquisition, in-line, three-dimensional seismic data.

What is the difference between Multi-Azimuth and wide azimuth?

Multi-azimuth (MAZ) uses one vessel to acquire a survey in two or more survey azimuths to primarily improve target illumination Wide-azimuth (WAZ) uses two or more vessels to acquire a survey with one survey azimuth, but individual source-receiver azimuth populations increase, and complex noise that obscures seismic images is removed

How can marine seismic data acquired with more azimuths be improved?

In addition to improved illumination, marine seismic data acquired with more azimuths can benefit from just stacking the data with higher fold to enhance signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and multiple attenuation (Keggin et al., 2006).

What is a multi-azimuth survey?

Hence, multi-azimuth (MAZ) surveys can either be pursued by acquiring two or more new survey azimuths, typically acquired in the orthogonal direction to the existing survey, or acquiring one (or more) new survey over the top of a legacy survey.

What is Maz/WAZ/FAZ seismic acquisition?

Azimuth (MAZ), Wide-Azimuth (WAZ) or Full-Azimuth (FAZ) seismic acquisition overcomes the limitations of the conventional acquisition in better illuminating the