What is Hampton hump sign?

What is Hampton hump sign?

Hampton’s hump is a radiological sign consisting of a peripheral, wedge-shaped opacification adjacent to the pleural surface, which represents pulmonary infarction distal to a pulmonary embolus.

What is chest hump?

Hampton hump refers to a dome-shaped, pleural-based opacification in the lung most commonly due to pulmonary embolism and lung infarction (it can also result from other causes of pulmonary infarction (e.g. vascular occlusion due to angioinvasive aspergillosis).

What is heart hump?

The Hampton hump is a well-defined pulmonary pleural based opacity representing haemorrhage and necrotic lung tissue in a region of pulmonary infarction caused by acute pulmonary embolism. The medial margin of the opacity frequently demonstrates a medial curved ‘hump’ directed towards the heart.

What does a PE look like on xray?

The classic radiographic findings of pulmonary infarction include a wedge-shaped, pleura-based triangular opacity with an apex pointing toward the hilus (Hampton hump) or decreased vascularity (Westermark sign). These findings are suggestive of pulmonary embolism but are infrequently observed.

What is septal flattening?

Interventricular septal flattening is an important echocardiographic finding and could be caused by increased right ventricular (RV) wall tension because of RV volume and/or pressure overload.

What is Kelly B line?

Kerley B lines (arrows) are horizontal lines in the lung periphery that extend to the pleural surface. They denote thickened, edematous interlobular septa often due to pulmonary edema.

What is the lump in the middle of my rib cage?

The xiphoid process, also referred to as the metasternum, is a small, bony extension of the sternum at its lower end. When this part is damaged, it gets inflamed. The resultant swelling may form a lump on the abdomen. The sternum, or breastbone, is in the center of the chest.

Can you lose weight with Cushing’s?

Patients with Cushing’s syndrome classically present with centripetal obesity, which is seen in 90% of the cases. Though weight gain is the rule in Cushing’s syndrome, a paradoxical weight loss can be seen in a subgroup of patients, including those with a malignant tumour as the cause of Cushing’s syndrome.

What causes McConnell’s sign?

McConnell’s sign is defined as right ventricular free wall akinesis with sparing of the apex. Typically this looks as if the apex of the RV is a trampoline bouncing up and down while the rest of the RV remains still. This finding is not sensitive, but in a small study was specific for an acute PE.

What are Hampton’s signs and Westermark signs?

Hence, a thorough understanding and prompt recognition of these radiological signs can aid early confident diagnosis. Hampton’s hump, Westermark’s sign and Palla’s signs are radiological signs described in pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE); Hampton’s hump indicating pulmonary infarction distal to the thrombus.

What is Westermark’s sign on chest radiograph?

Chest radiograph (posterior–anterior view) showing a lateral wedge-shaped opacity (white arrow) in the right lower zone (Hampton’s hump), a focal area of oligemia (space between white arrow heads) in the right lower zone (Westermark’s sign) and a prominent right descending pulmonary artery (black arrow) (Palla’s sign).

What is the specificity of the Westermark sign?

The Westermark sign has a 22% sensitivity, 82% specificity, 29% PPV, and 76% NPV as reported by Worsley et al. (1993) based on the cohort from PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis).

What is the history of the Westermark sign in pulmonary embolism?

The theory behind the sign is either obstruction of the pulmonary artery or distal vasoconstriction in hypoxic lung 3. In one study (PIOPED) this sign was present on ~10% of chest x-rays of patients with confirmed pulmonary embolus 2 . The Swedish radiologist Nils Johan Hugo Westermark (1892-1980) 7 first described this sign in 1938 5.