What are the features of tuberculous meningitis?
Tuberculous Meningitis involves the central nervous system. Headaches and behavioral changes may be noticed initially. Fever, headache, a stiff neck, and vomiting may also occur. Symptoms among older children and adults may progress from irritability to confusion, drowsiness, and stupor, possibly leading to coma.
What is the microscopic pathology in meningeal tuberculosis?
Intracerebral and spinal pathology in TBM is mediated by a dysregulated inflammatory response that contributes to meningitis, tuberculoma formation, arteritis, obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, and vascular complications including stroke.
How is tubercular meningitis diagnosed?
Definitive diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis can be made by demonstration of mycobacteria in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), by direct staining or culture. However, these tests are time consuming and seldom positive.
What is tubercular meningitis?
Tuberculous meningitis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). The bacteria spread to the brain and spine from another place in the body, usually the lung. Tuberculous meningitis is very rare in the United States.
What is the pathophysiology of meningitis?
The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis involve a complex interplay between virulence factors of the pathogens and the host immune response [3,4]. Much of the damage from this infection is believed to result from cytokines released within the CSF as the host mounts an inflammatory response.
Is CSF clear in TB meningitis?
Conclusions: Clear CSF with colorless appearance, lymphocyte pleocytosis, high protein level, and low CSF glucose as well as blood glucose ratio remain typical CSF characteristics of TBM patients found at the Department of Neurosurgery, Dr.
What is cobweb CSF?
If the CSF is left to stand, a fine clot resembling a pellicle or cobweb may form. This faintly visible “spider’s web clot” is due to the very high level of protein in the CSF (1–8 g/L, or 1000–8000 mg/dL) typical of this condition.
What is the principle of PPD?
The PPD reaction exploits the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction of a patient previously infected with mycobacteria. A positive reaction is correlated histologically by the presence of mononuclear cells at the site of injection. This influx begins within 24 hours and is usually complete by 72 hours.
What does CSF look like in tuberculous meningitis?
Characteristic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings of TBM include a lymphocytic-predominant pleiocytosis, elevated protein, and low glucose. CSF acid-fast smear and culture have relatively low sensitivity but yield is increased with multiple, large volume samples.
What is Froin syndrome?
Abstract. Background: Froin syndrome is characterized by xanthochromia and hypercoagulability of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to elevated protein levels. This entity results from blockage of the spinal canal by a mass lesion leading to an isolated caudal CSF space.
Is meningitis caused by bacteria or a virus?
Meningitis is typically caused by pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, but it can sometimes develop after a head injury or from certain medications.
What is bacterial meningitis and is it contagious?
Viral meningitis is contagious after three days once the infection starts and ten days after the symptoms develop. Bacterial meningitis is contagious depending on the type of bacteria causing the infection. It may be contagious during the incubation period and for about an additional fourteen days.
What are the stages of bacterial meningitis?
– leptomeningitis, the most common form in which soft shells are affected; – pachymenigitis – inflammation of the dura mater, occurs in about 2 out of 100 cases of the disease; – Panmeningitis is diagnosed if all the membranes of the brain are affected.
What is the bacteria that causes meningitis?
– Meningococcal – Pneumococcal – Hib (a disease caused by the Haemophilus influenzae bacteria)