What are allele designations?
Allele designations appear as superscripted short alphanumeric strings following the gene symbol of which they are an allele and serve as an acronym for the allele name. Example: Atp7aMo or Egfrtm1Mag. For allele designations for spontaneous and induced alleles of known genes…
What does C. elegans stand for?
Caenorhabditis elegans (/ˌsiːnoʊræbˈdaɪtəs ˈɛləɡæns/) is a free-living transparent nematode about 1 mm in length that lives in temperate soil environments. It is the type species of its genus. The name is a blend of the Greek caeno- (recent), rhabditis (rod-like) and Latin elegans (elegant).
How do you write genes in C. elegans?
Homologous Genes If a homolog of a known C. elegans gene is identified in a related species such as Caenorhabditis briggsae, it can be given the same gene name, preceded by two italic letters referring to the species, and a hyphen. For example, Cb-tra-1 is the name for the C.
How many C. elegans genes are there?
The number of genes predicted for the Caenorhabditis elegans genome is remarkably high: approximately 20,000, if both protein-coding and RNA-coding genes are counted. This article discusses possible explanations for such a high value.
What is genotype designation?
GENOTYPE: 1. Genes. Each gene is assigned a three-letter designation, usually an abbreviation for the pathway or the phenotype of mutants. When the genotype is indicated, the three-letter designation is written in lower case.
Why C. elegans is used as a model organism?
C. elegans is a nematode worm and is significantly anatomically simpler than a human, however, it does share many similarities at the molecular level making it a good candidate for a model organism.
How do you read gene names?
General rules. Each bacterial gene is denoted by a mnemonic of three lower case letters which indicate the pathway or process in which the gene-product is involved, followed by a capital letter signifying the actual gene. In some cases, the gene letter may be followed by an allele number.
What are Hox genes C. elegans?
Genes from the Hox gene clusters encode evolutionarily conserved homeodomain-containing transcription factors that play a pivotal role in axial patterning during animal development [1–5]. C. elegans is an attractive model system to study the unique and combined effects of Hox genes on developmental processes.
Why is C. elegans important?
C. elegans grown in large numbers, can be easily screened for effects of novel drugs on complex processes involved in human disease. C. elegans is particularly useful the study of ageing processes because the organism passes through several distinct phases of life which can be observed physiologically and genetically.
What is HLA allele?
HLA genes are highly polymorphic, which means that they have many different alleles, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune system. The proteins encoded by certain genes are also known as antigens, as a result of their historic discovery as factors in organ transplants.
How are gene names written?
General formatting and writing guidelines In general, symbols for genes are italicized (e.g., IGF1), whereas symbols for proteins are not italicized (e.g., IGF1). The formatting of symbols for RNA and complementary DNA (cDNA) usually follows the same conventions as those for gene symbols.
How does gene naming work?
Gene naming Ideally gene symbols are short, memorable and pronounceable, and most gene names are long form descriptions of the symbol. Names should be brief, specific and convey something about the character or function of the gene product(s), but not attempt to describe everything known.
What are two characteristics that make C. elegans a good model organism?
Caenorhabditis elegans have become a popular model organism because of their rapid lifecycle, large number of progeny, and ease of cultivation in a laboratory setting. In addition, because C. elegans are self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, each progeny represents a genetic clone. One of the first major studies in C.
What is the role of classical genetics in C elegans genetics?
Welcome to the world of C. elegans genetics. The field has historically used classical genetic methods for two principal purposes: (1) to define precisely the locations of mutations so that the affected gene products can be identified, and (2) to generate strains containing multiple mutations or visible markers for genetic and phenotypic analysis.
Is whole genome sequencing the best way to identify C elegans mutants?
As the field of C. elegansgenetics has progressed, it has now become feasible to side step a number of the more arduous steps described in the above sections. Certainly, whole genome sequencing has provided a much more rapid means for identifying mutants of interest.
Is C elegans haploid or diploid?
C. elegans has six chromosomes: five autosomes (I-V) and one sex chromosome (X). Hermaphrodites are diploid for all six, whereas males are diploid for the autosomes but are haploid for X (designated X/Ø). A variety of visible markers for mapping (such as dpy and unc mutations) are present on all six chromosomes.
Is there a good SNP database for C elegans?
Over the past 15 years various internet-accessible C. elegansSNP databases have come and gone. In fact, some of the better ones, with respect to the user interface, no longer exist. One consistent way to access SNPs is directly has been through WormBase.