What is the function of Oligodendroglial cells?

What is the function of Oligodendroglial cells?

Oligodendrocytes are specialized glial cells that wrap themselves around neurons present in the CNS. Oligodendrocytes are primarily responsible for maintenance and generation of the myelin sheath that surrounds axons. They also participate in axonal regulation and the sculpting of higher order neuronal circuits [51].

What does oligodendrocyte dysfunction cause?

Here we have reviewed the growing evidence demonstrating that oligodendrocyte dysfunction plays an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple system atrophy.

Where are Oligodendroglial cells found?

the central nervous system
Oligodendrocytes are found only in the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord.

What is a characteristic of an oligodendrocyte?

Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system. They are characterized by having dark round, oval and sometimes irregularly shaped nuclei, in which chromatin is clumped both beneath the nuclear envelope and throughout the nucleoplasm (Fig. 12.1).

What is myelin job?

Myelin is an insulating layer, or sheath that forms around nerves, including those in the brain and spinal cord. It is made up of protein and fatty substances. This myelin sheath allows electrical impulses to transmit quickly and efficiently along the nerve cells. If myelin is damaged, these impulses slow down.

What is oligodendrocyte differentiation?

Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are responsible for the myelination of axons in the central nervous system (CNS). The differentiation of OLs encompasses several stages, through which cells undergo dramatic biochemical and morphological changes.

What would happen if oligodendrocytes are destroyed?

Thus, neurotransmitter receptors play an important role in the normal life of oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, if oligodendrocytes become damaged and the myelin sheath is destroyed, the action potential is reduced in velocity or ceases altogether, leading to physical or mental disability.

Which statement is true regarding the action of an oligodendrocyte?

Which statement is true regarding the action of an oligodendrocyte? Each oligodendrocyte can form a myelin sheath around many axons simultaneously.

What is the structure of an oligodendrocyte?

Summary. Oligodendrocytes are supportive cells present in the central nervous system. These cells consist of a small body with radiating cellular processes. A small spherical nucleus is present in the cell body that also contains a small amount of cytoplasm.

What is the most important function of the oligodendrocytes quizlet?

Their main functions are to provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system of some vertebrates, equivalent to the function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Oligodendrocytes do this by creating the myelin sheath, which is 80% lipid and 20% protein.

Why are oligodendrocytes targeted in MS?

In MS, the body’s own immune system thinks the oligodendrocytes are infections and attacks them and their myelin. This means the nerve cells are exposed to damage, and the messages can’t get through as efficiently, or may not get through at all. This is what causes the symptoms in MS.

How do oligodendrocytes support neurons?

Oligodendrocytes transfer energy metabolites to neurons through cytoplasmic “myelinic” channels and monocarboxylate transporters, which allow for the fast delivery of short-carbon-chain energy metabolites like pyruvate and lactate to neurons.

Why does multiple sclerosis target oligodendrocytes?

What happens when astrocytes are activated?

Another major function of these astrocytes involves their activation in response to damage. Astrocyte activation, or astrogliosis, plays a central role in the response to most or all neurological insults including trauma, infections, stroke, tumorigenesis, neurodegeneration, and epilepsy.

What is the function of the oligodendroglia?

Oligodendroglia produce the myelin that covers the white matter of the CNS, which includes the optic nerve and a small proximal portion of the acoustic nerve. From: Kaufman’s Clinical Neurology for Psychiatrists (Eighth Edition), 2017 Laszlo Köles, Peter Illes, in Advances in Pharmacology, 2011

What is an oligodendrocyte?

C. Dirk Keene, in Comparative Anatomy and Histology (Second Edition), 2018 Oligodendrocytes (oligodendroglia or “oligos”) form and maintain the myelin that surrounds processes of CNS neurons. Each oligo sheathes multiple axons, while several oligos can serve as “satellite cells” next to neuron cell bodies in gray matter.

What is the incidence of oligodendroglial tumors?

Oligodendroglial tumors are rare tumors that constitute part of the neuro epithelial tumors of the central nervous system. Accounting to up to 5% of all neuroepithelial tumors (Ostrom et al., 2017), oligodendroglial tumors have an incidence rate of around 1,000 new cases per year in the United States.

What is the pathophysiology of oligodendrocytes/myelin?

Oligodendrocytes/myelin are the chief targets in autoimmune white matter disorders such as multiple sclerosis in humans and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rodents. Destruction of myelin in the CNS is essentially permanent.