How are bacterial species identified?
Bacteria are identified routinely by morphological and biochemical tests, supplemented as needed by specialized tests such as serotyping and antibiotic inhibition patterns. Newer molecular techniques permit species to be identified by their genetic sequences, sometimes directly from the clinical specimen.
Why is bacterial identification important?
Accurate and definitive microorganism identification, including bacterial identification and pathogen detection, is essential for correct disease diagnosis, treatment of infection and trace-back of disease outbreaks associated with microbial infections.
What is isolation and identification of bacteria?
Isolation of bacterial contaminants is performed by standard microbiological techniques and battery of biochemical reactions. Various biochemical reactions such as IMViC, Urease, Nitrate, Catalase, H2S production, Sugar fermentation tests were identified for the identification of bacterial isolates.
What is the first important step in the identification of bacteria?
Following isolation, one of the first steps in identifying a bacterial isolate is the Gram stain, which allows for the determination of the Gram reaction, morphology, and arrangement of the organism.
What is the principle of identification of bacteria by biochemical properties?
Identifying bacteria via analyzing their enzymatic profile Each species of bacteria has specific metabolic needs and relies on different enzymes to fuel those unique needs. The presence of catalase, gelatinase, oxidase, urease, for example, can be used to identify the species of bacteria.
What are the techniques used in biochemical testing for identification of bacteria?
Traditional biochemical tests for microbial identification Simple biochemical tests such as catalase testing, oxidase testing, and substrate utilization tests fit under the category of traditional tests, alongside staining and microscopy methods such as gram staining, endospore staining, and Ziehl-Neelsen staining.
What are the methods in identifying microorganisms?
Among the techniques we use are: DNA sequencing – to identify bacteria, moulds and yeasts. Riboprinter analysis – for bacterial identification and characterisation. Repeat–based polymerase chain reaction – for assessing the similarity of microorganisms.
What are genotypic methods of identification?
Genotypic identification is emerging as an alternative or complement to established phenotypic methods. Typically, genotypic identification of bacteria involves the use of conserved sequences within phylogenetically informative genetic targets, such as the small-subunit (16S) rRNA gene (20, 23, 30, 41, 43).
How do you identify an organism?
A dichotomous key is an important scientific tool, used to identify different organisms, based the organism’s observable traits. Dichotomous keys consist of a series of statements with two choices in each step that will lead users to the correct identification.
How do you identify the bacterial species?
In order to identify the bacterial species, this information is compared to a database containing base composition data for a wide variety of bacteria ( 2 ). DNA is extracted from the microbial mixture and amplified with broad-spectrum primers.
How are extra-cellular characters used in the identification of bacteria?
Here some extra-cellular characters are used in the identification of bacteria. Some bacteria have flagella for motion. So they can be identified based on the number of flagella and the arrangement of flagella on the bacterial surface. Ex: Atrichous bacteria have no flagella, Monotrichous have one flagellum, Polytrichous have many flagella.
Is there a database for bacteria identification based on surface molecules?
In 2004, the first full database for bacteria identification based on surface molecules analysis was described, but the high variability of these proteins limited its usefulness due to the highly rigorous standardization required.
Why is it important to identify bacteria?
So bacterial identification is a necessary part of disease diagnosis and cure. Without the identification of causative bacteria, it is tough to provide effective treatment with available antibiotics. Bacteria as mentioned before or so tiny that one cannot watch without a microscope.