What is horizontal transmission of a disease?
In general, transmission of viruses can occur through two pathways: horizontal and vertical transmission. In horizontal transmission, viruses are transmitted among individuals of the same generation, while vertical transmission occurs from mothers to their offspring.
What is the mode of transmission of virus?
During localized infections, the virus is shed from the primary site of infection. Viruses that infect the skin are spread through skin-to-skin contact, and respiratory viruses are shed within respiratory secretions, passed along through a cough or sneeze to a new, susceptible host.
What is vertical contact transmission?
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that use mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
What is a vertically transmitted infection?
Vertical transmission refers to generational transmission of viruses from parents to their offspring. HIV-1, e.g., can be acquired in utero (via breaks in the placental barrier or transcytosis of cell-associated virus), during delivery (intrapartum), or via breastfeeding.
How is Ebola virus transmitted?
Ebola is spread by direct contact with blood or other body fluids (such as: vomit, diarrhea, urine, breast milk, sweat, semen) of an infected person who has symptoms of Ebola or who has recently died from Ebola.
How is Ebola transmitted from animals to humans?
Scientists think people are initially infected with Ebola virus through contact with an infected animal, such as a fruit bat or nonhuman primate. This is called a spillover event. After that, the virus spreads from person to person, potentially affecting a large number of people.
What are examples of horizontal transmission?
‘ Horizontal disease transmission implies that pathogens are spread to other members of the same or different species through non-hereditary means. For example, the pneumonic plague is spread horizontally when you sneeze and another person inhales the aerosolized bacteria particles expelled during the sneeze itself.
What is the mode of transmission of Coxiella burnetii?
Mode of transmission: 1 Human get infected with Coxiella burnetii by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. 2 By the bite of infected ticks 3 By direct contact; by handling infected animals and birds 4 By consuming contaminated raw milk.
What are the natural reservoir hosts of Coxiella burnetii?
Natural reservoir hosts are cows, goats, sheeps, rodents, wild mammalss and several species of birds. Human get infected with Coxiella burnetii by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. By consuming contaminated raw milk. Coxiella burnetii causes Q-fever which is also known as Red River Fever and Nine mile fever.
What is Coxiella burnetii Q fever?
Coxiella burnetii is responsible for Q fever in people and animals. C. burnetii is a small, gram-negative coccobacillus that lives and multiplies in the monocytes and macrophages in the host. As the organism multiplies, it destroys the host cell and moves on to live in other cells.
Which diagnostic tests are used in the workup of Coxiella burnetii infection?
Diagnostic tests that allow direct detection of C. burnetii are preferred and such tests include PCR detection and immunoassays. Coxiella burnetii, the cause of Query (Q) fever, is a highly infectious obligate intracellular pathogen.