What is phenotypic variation caused by?
Differences in genotype (or genotypic variations) produce phenotypic variation. Genotypic variations are caused by mutations, gene flow, and sexual reproduction. Environmental conditions such as climate, availability of food, and interactions with other organisms can contribute to phenotypic variation.
What causes high genetic variation?
Gene duplication, mutation, or other processes can produce new genes and alleles and increase genetic variation. New genetic variation can be created within generations in a population, so a population with rapid reproduction rates will probably have high genetic variation.
Is High Blood Pressure a dominant or recessive trait?
All Mendelian forms of hypertension to date have been autosomal-dominant with a single exception, apparent mineralocorticoid excess, which is autosomal-recessive.
What determines the phenotypic variation in a population?
In summary, the phenotypic differences among the individuals in a population can be attributed to both genetic and environmental sources. Determination of the underlying sources is essential for assessment of the potential of the population to evolve and adapt to heterogeneous or changing environments.
Why is there so much phenotypic variation in humans?
Phenotypic variation in humans is a direct consequence of genetic variation, which acts in conjunction with environmental and behavioral factors to produce phenotypic diversity. Genetic variants are classified by two basic criteria: their genetic composition and their frequency in the population.
What are the components of phenotypic variation?
Definition. Phenotypic variance, usually combines the genotype variance with the environmental variance. Genetic variance has three major components: the additive genetic variance, dominance variance, and epistatic variance.
What are the two types of genetic variation?
The multiple sources of genetic variation include mutation and genetic recombination. Mutations are the ultimate sources of genetic variation, but other mechanisms, such as sexual reproduction and genetic drift, contribute to it, as well.
What causes genetic high blood pressure?
Rare, genetic forms of hypertension are caused by mutations in particular genes, many of which help control the balance of fluids and salts in the body and affect blood pressure. The causes of essential hypertension, however, are not well understood.
What are the genes involved in hypertension?
Angiotensinogen (AGT) AGT was the first gene to show linkage with human essential or primary hypertension. In addition to linkage to the AGT locus, hypertension and plasma angiotensinogen levels were both found to be associated with the 235T and 174M variants of AGT.
What are phenotypic effects?
… Phenotype refers to an individual’s observable traits, such as height, eye color and blood type. A person’s phenotype is determined by both their genomic makeup (genotype) and environmental factors.
Does all genetic variation produces phenotypic variation?
Variation allows some individuals within a population to adapt to the changing environment. Because natural selection acts directly only on phenotypes, more genetic variation within a population usually enables more phenotypic variation.
What factors cause variation in humans?
Human variability is attributed to a combination of environmental and genetic sources including:
- Environmental sources. Prenatal environment. Nutrition and malnutrition. Quality of life and health care. Pollution and toxin exposure and other stressors.
- Genetic sources. Mutations. Gene mutation. Chromosomal mutation.
How do you find phenotypic variation?
Variance Components of a Quantitative Trait
- VP = VG + VE + VGE VP = total phenotypic variation of the segregating population.
- VG = VA + VD + VI and the total phenotypic variance can be rewritten as.
- VP = VA + VD + VI + VE + VGE
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What is a phenotypic change?
3,4,33 Phenotypic switching may be defined as a fundamental process, in which a cell/organism can transition from one phenotype to another or two cells/organisms can display different phenotypes despite identical genotypes. From: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, 2019.
What are blood pressure variations associated with?
cardiovascular disease. poorly controlled or uncontrolled high blood pressure. obstructive sleep apnea. kidney disease.