What is flocculation efficiency?

What is flocculation efficiency?

It is well known that the efficiency of a certain polyelectrolytes in flocculation processes is evaluated as a function of four main parameters: the optimum flocculant concentration, which should be as low as possible; isoelectric point (IEP) that determines the effective pH range; and the flocculation window, which …

What is the relationship between flocculation and coagulation?

Coagulation and flocculation are two separate processes, used in succession, to overcome the forces stabilising the suspended particles. While coagulation neutralises the charges on the particles, flocculation enables them to bind together, making them bigger, so that they can be more easily separated from the liquid.

How effective is coagulation?

Several studies have reported the effectiveness of dual coagulants application when dealing with various types of wastewater where it can reduce up to 90% of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, and colour.

What factors influence coagulation and flocculation?

The factors that influence coagulation–flocculation are, among others, temperature, pH, effluent quality, dosage and coagulant type (Nnaji 2012; Jin 2005; Ma et al. 2001). The suspended particles vary considerably in source, composition charge, particle size, shape, and density.

How flocculation increases the efficiency of thickening process?

Flocculants are mixed with the solid-liquid suspension in the entry feedwell of the thickener. The flocculants aggregate the fine particles, which speeds up settling of the solids.

What is the difference between coagulants and flocculants?

Coagulation is a chemical process. Flocculation is a physical process. Coagulants such as inorganic salts of aluminum or iron that neutralize the suspended particles are added during coagulation. Flocculant such as an organic polymer that involves in bridging and strengthening the flocs is added.

Why is coagulation and flocculation important?

Coagulation and flocculation are both critical processes to separate and remove suspended solids in water and wastewater treatment. These processes improve the clarity of the water to reduce turbidity.

What are the advantages of coagulation?

Coagulation helps to remove a number of different pollutants that cause your water to become dirty or toxic, including: Organic compounds and certain dissolved organic materials, commonly referred to as Natural Organic Matter (NOM) or Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC)

Why is coagulation and flocculation necessary?

Coagulation and flocculation are used to separate the suspended solids portion from the water. Suspended particles vary in source, charge, particle size, shape, and density. Correct application of coagulation and flocculation depends upon these factors.

What do you understand by coagulation and flocculation Why are they necessary?

What is the process of flocculation?

Flocculation is a process by which a chemical coagulant added to the water acts to facilitate bonding between particles, creating larger aggregates which are easier to separate. The method is widely used in water treatment plants and can also be applied to sample processing for monitoring applications.

What is the advantage of flocculation?

In case of emulsion of water with oil or grease, etc. the later will separate at a faster rate and float at the surface. Similarly the flocculant can form large size flocs in air floatation technique for faster upward movement of flocs aided by small air bubbles.

What is the main objective of coagulation and flocculation?

Coagulation and flocculation are used to separate the suspended solids portion from the water. Suspended particles vary in source, charge, particle size, shape, and density.

How to improve coagulation-flocculation efficiency of semiconductor wastewater treatment?

Efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process used for semiconductor wastewater treatment was improved by selecting suitable conditions (pH, polyelectrolyte type, and concentration) through zeta potential measurements.

Why choose a coagulation or flocculation system?

Coagulation and flocculation processes have become more and more popular due to the increasingly stringent filtration requirements for industrial and municipal water treatment and wastewater treatment facilities levied by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.)

What is flocculation in wastewater treatment?

What is flocculation in wastewater treatment? Flocculation goes hand in hand with coagulation in wastewater treatment. Once the waste particles have clumped together using coagulation, flocculating agents in wastewater treatment are used to remove the clumps.

How to evaluate the optimum coagulant?

The evaluation of optimum coagulant type, dosage and pH using the jar test procedure may be carried out on the basis of a wide variety of criteria; the applicability of each dependent on the particular circumstances and the processes used after coagulation.